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APA Research Paper Guide 
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Plagiarism Checker:

Your APA Research paper must have less than a 10% unoriginal score otherwise you will receive a zero for a grade since plagiarism is against the law! This will show you if you copied some else's work from your sources, even if by accident. Remember to put information into your own words and then use a citation. You can only check one page of your research paper at a time. After you check each page, add up all the percents for each page to be sure you fall under 10%. Click the link below to begin and follow the directions:



APA Formatting Guidelines:

All APA papers have the same guidelines. ALWAYS write in third person, do not use the words “I”, “we” or “us”. The cover page, abstract page and reference page DO NOT count in your assigned papers page requirements. Do not use quotations at all, use or modify in your own words and use PLENTY of citations based upon your reference page.

The basic principals are listed as follows:

All pages:(including cover and reference page) have the page number to the right and the title of your paper, in bold font to the left. Example:

The Mysteries of Eastern Philosophy                                                                                                1

All pages are also double spaced, use times new roman font at a size of 12. Indent all paragraphs correctly except for all your subtitles, which should be flush left. Nothing should be in bold font unless otherwise noted.

Cover page:Entire cover page should be in bold font, double spaced. First line is the title of your paper (note, the title of your paper should be unique, something you feel fits your type of writing and what you write about, it should not include the course name. The same title should also be in your header on each single page). Second line is the name of the course. Third line is the student’s full name. Forth line is the school’s name. Fifth line is the date; day, month, then full year (12 February 2012). This is all that should be on your cover page, nothing more.


All other pages except reference page:Double space. First will come your introductory paragraph with no citations. This is your first subcategory, and the title of this sub category is the same as the title of your paper, which should be in bold and centered. You are expressing what you will be writing about. Include a very brief statement of all your subcategories and do not forget to express the main idea of the paper as a whole. This is known as your thesis statement. This paragraph is about 10 to 15 sentences long. It is only 1 paragraph.  
 
Next will come all your subcategories: Each subcategory has a minimum of 2 paragraphs with 8 to 10 sentences minimum. Each subcategory needs its own, special title which is always in bold flush left. The number of total subcategories varies depending upon the number of answers to questions your teacher gives you, or to fully explain and develop your main ideas. Each subcategory will have a main idea that is consistent to your thesis, and each paragraph also needs a main idea that is consistent to your subcategory. In this area, known as the “body” of your paper, your minimum assigned amount of research pages should be completed. The cover and reference page, even though they are numbered, are not counted towards this accomplishment.

During the typing of the body of your paper, you will need to express citations. This states where you received your information from. There should be plenty of citations listed in your body. No quotes are used in APA format. Anything you find, read, listen to or experience must have a citation. Of course, there are also going to be sentences where you explain your own observations, feelings and so forth which do not always need citations. There should not be a citation for every single sentence. For every citation you use, there should be a reference for it on your reference page. Use parenthesis, authors last name, comma, and year. Here is an example of a citation: (Kafferly, 2011). Always insert the citation at the end of your sentence and put the period at the end of the citation outside of the parenthesis.

Reference page:The title of our reference page, centered, is “Bibliography”. Your references should be in alphabetical order by author’s last name and scholarly. Double space between references only. The reference page will correlate to every citation you have in your paper. Wikipedia and Ask.com is not a reliable source for a reference and should never be used. The use of this inaccurate website will give you a grade of zero/F.

1.) For books, movies, DVD’s and Videos, the reference is as follows: Authors last name, first initial, year it was published in parenthesis, title of book (or movie or DVD) in italics, then jump down one space (without double spacing!) and then city of publisher and state abbreviation, colon, name of publisher. Here is an example:

Kafferly, K. (2011) The great teacher 4 ed.
Jacksonville, FL: Aslan High School
 
citation in paper: (Kafferly, 2011)
 
2.) For interviews, the reference is as follows: Interviewee’s last name, first initial, job title, year interview took place in parenthesis, the words “Personal Communication”. Here is an example:
 
Daniels, D., Teacher (2011) Personal Communication  
 
citation in paper: (Daniels, 2011)
 
3.) For webpages, the reference is as follows: Author of webpage (or corporate author), semicolon Name of the website, name of webpage in italics, year the webpage was published in parenthesis, then jump down one space (without double spacing!), the words “Retrieved” with a colon, URL. Here is an example:
 
Avalon Light Therapy; LED therapy and you (2009)
Date retrieved: 12 February 2012 www.avalonlightkeepers.com 

citation in paper: (Avalon Light Therapy, 2009)


Trusted & Proper Primary Sources to Use: 
*This is also a sample of a proper APA paper  with only one source, and also without the headers, paragraph indention, and page numbers. In your paper, you MUST double space everything.

Cover Page: 

Sources

EDU626: Research Design and Methodology

Todd Davenport

Ashford University

10 June 2010
 
First Page:
 
Sources

There are many valid and invalid sources of research available for literature review writers. They key is to find valid information in a reasonable amount of time while still gaining the most benefits of knowledge. Using reputable online databases and libraries is the best start for most writers. However, there are mounds of information available on just about every topic. Therefore, a write needs to start with generalized sources that help point to the main source of research. After this is completed, items such as abstracts of work need to be read for validity and the article itself should be skimmed at the introductory and discussion levels. After it is determined the source is good, then study can commence. Assessing the material and understanding the interpretation of key words is valuable. Understanding what sources are, how to read, use them appropriately, using citations, and how to evaluate and then apply the knowledge of sources is the goal of learning.

ERIC

The Education Resources Information Center, or “ERIC”, is governed and managed by the institute of Education Sciences and the Federal Department of Education. The database houses twenty different broad subject areas such as adult, vocational and career education, junior colleges, and United States-Japan as a few examples (Charles & Mertler, 2011). ERIC makes most widely used indexes for finding indexes which give abstracts and citations. By using ERIC, and other databases such as PsycINFO, DAI, and Social Science Citation Index, researchers have the advantages to save time, locate primary sources. These databases cover massive quantities of information quickly and limits searches by user selected key phrases which allows for speed and better accuracy of primary sources pertaining to the topic (Charles & Mertler, 2011). 

The disadvantage of ERIC specifically is that it only logs information back to the year nineteen eighty-one (Charles & Mertler, 2011). While it is of most importance to use the most up to date sources and information, primary resources for some topics will not be located on the database. In this case, going to a physical library and looking for journal articles in bound volumes or microfiche would be more effective and prudent (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Another disadvantage is that a researcher would need access to the internet. However, this isn’t typically a big problem in this day and age of technology. 
 
Article Abstracts

Abstracts are simply a prelude into research. These are known as basic summaries of original, primary works (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Abstracts have no evaluations or commentaries, just the primary glimpse of information available in the article in order to help a researcher decide if the article deserves more scrutiny (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Being that article abstracts are just summaries, it is most important to delve deeper into the article itself after determining it is the information a researcher desires. It is the article, or work published, itself that holds the key information along with facts, conclusions, and experiments. Although some abstracts, such as the Dissertation Abstracts International, are complete and discuss what the researcher explored, procedures sued and the results, there are still missing pieces involved that warrant further investigation by reading and evaluating the entire article or journal (Charles & Mertler, 2011).

Secondary and Primary Sources

Secondary sources do not give firsthand knowledge or information. Primary sources are of original works, firsthand. Secondary sources are a great start to research because they include expert analyses and interpretations of original works (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Secondary sources also show trends, and generalized conclusions. Examples of profitable secondary sources include reference books, research reviews, scholarly publications, and magazine articles (Charles & Mertler, 2011). The secondary sources help point a researcher to primary sources by way of the information provided and references of the secondary source. This narrows the search parameters of finding primary sources. Secondary Sources can be found online and in books such as encyclopedias. It should be noted that some secondary sources such as Wikipedia are not usually whole or trustworthy as anyone can change the information or references listed. College students who write APA standard research papers can be used as a secondary source.

Primary sources are the original works with more current information than can be found in referencing works (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Primary sources can be easily found in annotated bibliographies, abstracts and reviews of the primary source (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Unlike secondary sources, which are commentaries, primary sources are the end result of finding relevant information. Primary sources in libraries are found in abstracts, reviews, but best found in specialized indexes (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Primary sources can also include websites with .edu, .gov, and .org.

Assessment of Sources

To assess the vast amount of sources and information when doing research and having material at hand, a researcher must make a valid assessment of the information at hand and identify and determine what information is relevant and needed for the topic. A researcher needs to skim through abstracts and reviews quickly to determine the information at hand (Charles & Mertler, 2011). This helps a research to identify and gather relevant information quickly. Determining what the information is about is the next logical step and can be done by reviewing the title and introduction to see what the information is about (Charles & Mertler, 2011). By looking at the end of the published article, or book, a researcher should read the “Discussion” or sometimes called “Conclusion” (Charles & Mertler, 2011). 

Through skimming, reading the introduction and discussion, a research then has a good idea of what this research is about and how it pertains to their topic. This enables a research to plan a strategy or outline of how to go about gather information on their topic and writing their own essay report which is an interpretation of information and knowledge acquired. The assessment of sources determines what has been done, enables a researcher to learn about the procedures and people that were used and shown to be effective, and form a basis for writing a review (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Of course, in research review or essay writing, paraphrasing the information found and written, with citations, and strictly avoiding plagiarism is of the most importance.

Interpretation

During research and reading, people will come across particular statistical terms which have great bearing on the information provided. An understanding of these terms is crucial for researchers to interpret the meanings. Words such as “status”, “comparisons”, and “covarying relationships” are examples of special phrases for the economy of language (Charles & Mertler, 2011). Status reports are qualitative and describe conditions and trends. Raw scores, such as mean, median, and mode, indicate numbers of people, or scores on tests. Correlation reports are relationships between performances on two, or more, measures and are of interesting discoveries (Charles & Mertler, 2011).
 
 
Discussion

When beginning a literature review essay of research, a writer must be able to know how and where to locate information. Through the use of databases such as ERIC and online libraries, as well as physical libraries, one can find vast amounts of information on their topic. Secondary sources are a great start and lead to primary sources, which is where the research began and concluded. Understanding that most abstracts are preludes to the real research and information is critical. By use of skimming, a writer can find that the abstracts that pertains to the topic and then dive into the actual article or report. A writer must also know and understand the economic use of language is research reports. That is the special terminology and interpretation of key words always found in research. Other primary sources include websites that end in .edu, .gov., and .org.

 Separate and final page:

References

Charles, C., & Mertler, C. A. (2011). Introduction to Educational Research 7/e. Boston, MA.: Pearson Education, Inc.


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When assigned a Bibliography, you find sources you plan to use in an APA paper. You reference the source first, and then give a 150-250 word abstract, or summary, of the source and how it relates to the APA research assignment you will be doing. Bibliographies must have a cover page and a reference page, but not an abstract page. It is also formatted differently than an APA paper. All references and abstracts are flushed to the left, and single spaced. See the sample below to learn how to format and create a bibliography. 

Sample Bibliography:

Cover Page:

Higher Education Bibliography

EDU626: Research Design and Methodology

Cary G. Price

Aslan High School

07 June 2013

First Page:
 
Higher Education Bibliography

Armstrong, D., Henson, K., & Savage, T. (2009). Teaching today, an introduction to education 8/e. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

To begin any type of instruction, an educator needs a solid introduction. This is true for school and higher education educators. This introduction touches on every subject and standpoint of teaching. It involves many opportunities to reflect and analyze information absorbed. The book also covers current trends and true realities of teaching, students, learning orientations, and education as whole. It also includes diverse learners, and delivery of quality instruction to students. One of the chapters of this book covers delivery of instruction for adult learners and another chapter introduces the learning orientations for all learners. Adult Basic Education which is high school for adult learners is also covered since it differs from higher education learning in various ways.

Diploma Guide. (2013). Thirty of the best educational tools for auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners. Retrieved from http://diplomaguide.com/articles/30_of_the_Best_Educational_Tools_for_Auditory_Visual_and_Kinesthetic_Learners.html

This website provides adult learners and higher education educators’ plethora of many resources for students who learn best by one of the three main learning orientations; auditory, kinesthetic and visual. The guide offers a short interlude into what each resource can do for each type of learner. Each tool has its own reference and webpage link listed in this guide. This is most effective for educators to learn and use the tools offered when integrating lesson and instruction to higher education students. This offers valuable information of how to incorporate technology with delivering instruction and serving all learning orientations. Some of the tools offered are vital for lesson planning and not all the tools must be done online.

Gregory, G. (2008). Differentiated instructional stratagies in practice: training, implementation, and supervision 2/e. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Corwin Press.

Adult learners learn in various different ways. This book provides many strategies to implement differentiated instruction to diverse students. Job-embedded professional development is also explained and teaches educators how to incorporate those adults who have job to incorporate their experiences in the classroom. This source also includes a "one size doesn’t fit all" approach when teaching adults, especially for faculty meetings and leadership. There are activities and training strategies, information about how to implement change with support, and suggestions for observations, coaching and supervision. There are also tips on how to implement proper evaluation tools and assessments for adult learners. The book covers an individual, a small group and large groups when it comes to all of the information and tools it gives for differentiated instruction.

Imel, S. (1998). Technology and instruction: current perspectives. ERIC clearinghouse on adult , career, and vocational education, digest 197.

In this digest, the role of technology with education and adult learners is explored.  Technology can be used in several ways such as a curriculum, instructional delivery mechanic, or as a tool. The source guides educators on how to effectively incorporate technology and learning without diminishing the educational experience. The digest continues on about how it is important to keep the focus on the educational material that technology delivers and not the technology itself. Practices in educational technology, curriculum and educator roles are also discussed.  The different roles of technology to serve adult learners doesn’t stop at the computer, but also gives information about how to use it on cell phones, iPads, and iPods. Different software and online resources such as VoiceThread and Power Points are also discussed.

Institute of education services. (n.d.). National center of adult literacy. Retrieved from National center of educational statistics: http://nces.ed.gov/naal/

The website offers percentages and statistics on adults who are literate and illiterate. Breakdowns of prose, document, and quantative reading scores are collected and organized in a graph for easy referencing. It also shows demographics of age, race and education. Assessments, design and development, and data files help to back up the information. This gives an insight into how the information was compiled.  The site also breaks down the three most important aspects of literacy. The website gives additional links to other reputable and government approved websites to help educators teach reading literacy in all three forms to their adult students.

Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step a capstone in education. San Diego, CA.: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

In this book, the authors pull all facets of education together. Reviews over general education, adult basic education, learning orientations, lesson planning and serving differentiated learners is put into detail with extra information. Different teaching strategies and philosophies are discussed with valid and proven examples. A history of higher education is discussed towards the end with a finale in educator guidance and serving English language learners in sheltered instruction.

Kerka, S. (1997). Constructivism, workplace learning, and vocational education, ERIC digest number 181. Retrieved from ERIC digests: http://www.eric.ed.gov/pdfs/ed407573.pdf

Constructivism is heavily applied in this digest. This enables the transfer of learning in school to a career or job. Educators are engaged in active inquiry, guide adult learners to make inferences, and coach them. This involves self-discovery learning. Teaching adults how to learn which in turn makes them more successful. The digest also explains the pitfalls of job-embedded learning such as inappropriate knowledge, lack of activities and lack of experts to be involved in training. This type of learning takes place tech prep, school to work, vocational schools and integrated academic schools. Situated learning is also discussed.

Stallons, J. (2011). Philosophy of education. New York, NY: Bridgepoint Education.

The five main philosophies of education, perennialism, idealism, realism, experimentalism, and existentialism are highly discussed and exemplified in this book.  These philosophies are typically based upon society's view and what society thinks is important. Political beliefs also have a place in educational philosophy to an extent. The book explains that a combination of these philosophies has more impact than just one. There are different types of courses, schools and students every time and so in many cases, different philosophies, or combinations, change. Educators must know and understand these five basic philosophies and be willing and able to change with what is needed at the time. Being locked into just one philosophy will make the world seem smaller and hampers the ability to have consistency with change.

Taylor, K., Marienau, C., & Fiddler, M. (2000). Strategies for teachers and trainers developing adult learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

This publication is a primary source for learning orientations and educating adult learners. The first part of the book gives an encouraging framework for educators of adult learners. Characteristics of adult learners, learning and development, and theories of adult learners are heavily described. Part two of the book has exciting activities that are each primarily focused on one on one strategy such as collaborating, experimenting, reflection, assessment, and imagining. Part three focuses in on the educator's role in adult learning. Educator development and the importance of practice and reflection are given in studied and proven examples. The finale of the publication examines the change and growth in adults.

Wynne, R. (n.d.). Learner centered methodologies: overview of course design and planning process. Retrieved from Assesst Project: http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/overview.htm

The website offers great information and guidance for educators to design courses and plan for adult learners. Understand the characteristics, anxieties and motivating factors of adutls begin the process. Learning how to create a friendly environment, teaching strategies, facilitation, role-playing, and group work are explored in further topics. The site also engages in assessments and evaluations of what adults learned and grasped from the educator. The website wraps up with a self evaluation and management review of the adult educator. The website also emphasizes recognition of prior learning for adults and how this needs to be respect and used throughout a course. One of the essential teachings is for an educator to learn and heavily apply problem-based learning as this mimics real world experiences in a safe zone.
Final Page:
 
References
 
Armstrong, D., Henson, K., & Savage, T. (2009). Teaching today, an introducion to education 8/e. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Diploma Guide. (2012). Thirty of the best educational tools for auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners. Retrieved from http://diplomaguide.com/articles/30_of_the_Best_Educational_Tools_for_Auditory_Visual_and_Kinesthetic_Learners.html

Gregory, G. (2008). Differentiated instructional stratagies in practice: training, implementation, and supervision 2/e. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Corwin Press.

Imel, S. (1998). Technology and instruction: current perspectives. ERIC clearinghosue on adult , career, and vocational education, digest 197.

Institute of education services. (n.d.). National center of adult literacy. Retrieved from National center of educational statistics: http://nces.ed.gov/naal/

Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step a capstone in education. San Diego, CA.: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Kerka, S. (1997). Constructivism, workplace learning, and vocational education, ERIC digest number 181. Retrieved from ERIC digests: http://www.eric.ed.gov/pdfs/ed407573.pdf

Stallons, J. (2011). Philosophy of education. New York, NY: Bridgepoint Education.

Taylor, K., Marienau, C., & Fiddler, M. (2000). Strategies for teachers and trainers developing adult learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Wynne, R. (n.d.). Learner centered methodologies: overview of course design and planning process. Retrieved from Assesst Project: http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/overview.htm
 

 

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